## You are learning Cell Referencing in MS Excel

How to use mixed cell references (absolute row/column)?

In Excel, mixed cell references combine the benefits of absolute and relative references, giving you more control when copying formulas across your spreadsheet. Here's how to use them:

Understanding Mixed References:

* Absolute Row: When you fix the row number with a dollar sign ($) before it (e.g., $B1), the row reference remains constant regardless of where you copy the formula. The column letter (B) can change based on a relative offset.

* Absolute Column: Conversely, if you fix the column letter with a dollar sign ($) before it (e.g., B$1), the column reference stays the same when copied, while the row number can adjust relatively.

Creating Mixed References (2 Methods):

1. Manual Entry: Simply type the cell address with the dollar sign in the desired location (e.g., $B1 or B$2).

2. Using F4 Key:

- Enter the cell address you want to make mixed (e.g., B1).

- Press the F4 key repeatedly until the dollar sign appears in the desired position (e.g., $B1 or B$1). Each press cycles through relative, absolute column, absolute row, and absolute reference.

Benefits of Using Mixed References:

1. Consistency in Calculations: When copying formulas containing mixed references, specific rows or columns remain fixed, ensuring calculations reference the intended data points.

2. Maintain Cell Links: Imagine you have a formula in cell D5 that uses the value in cell B1. By making B an absolute reference (B$1), the formula will always reference cell B1, even if you copy it down to other rows (e.g., D6, D7).

3. Simplify Complex Formulas: Mixed references can streamline complex formulas that reference specific cells across different rows or columns.

Example:

Imagine you have a table with product names in column A and prices in column B. You want to calculate a 10% discount on each price. Here's how mixed references can help:

- In cell C2, enter the formula `=B2*0.9` (assuming the price is in B2). This calculates the discounted price for the first product.

- Now, to copy this formula down to remaining rows (C3, C4, etc.), you want the price reference (B) to adjust relatively, but the discount rate (0.9) to stay constant.

- So, before copying, press F4 on the formula in C2 to change B2 to B$2 (absolute column).

- Now, copy the formula from C2 down to the other rows (C3, C4, etc.). The formula will automatically adjust (C3 = B3*0.9, C4 = B4*0.9), maintaining the correct price reference from the corresponding rows in column B while keeping the discount rate fixed at 10%.

By understanding mixed references, you can create dynamic and reusable formulas in your Excel spreadsheets.