## You are learning Cell Referencing in MS Excel

How to create absolute cell references using F4?

Here's how to create absolute cell references using F4 in Excel:

1. Enter your formula: Start by typing your formula in the formula bar. When you need to reference a specific cell, simply click on that cell or type the cell address (e.g., A1, B3).

2. Highlight the cell reference: Once you've entered the cell reference in your formula, click and highlight it within the formula bar.

3. Press F4: Now, press the F4 key on your keyboard. This will toggle the cell reference between relative, absolute, and mixed references.

Understanding the Toggle:

* Initial Press (Default): Most likely, the first press of F4 will keep the cell reference relative. This means that if you copy the formula to another cell, the reference will adjust based on its new position. For instance, if your formula is `=A1+B1` in cell C2, copying it to D3 will change it to `=B2+C2` due to relative references.

* Second Press (Absolute): Pressing F4 again will make the cell reference absolute. An absolute reference remains fixed to the specific cell location regardless of where you copy the formula. In our example, if you press F4 after highlighting `A1` in the formula `=A1+B1`, it will change to `=$A$1+B1`. Now, copying this formula to any cell will keep the reference to cell A1.

* Third Press (Mixed): Pressing F4 a third time might create a mixed reference. Here, either the row or column reference becomes absolute, while the other remains relative. For example, pressing F4 again after `=$A$1+B1` might change it to `=$A1+B1` (absolute column, relative row) or `A$1+B1` (relative column, absolute row).

Tips:

* You can keep pressing F4 to cycle through the different reference options until you get the desired format (relative, absolute, or mixed).

* Look at the formula bar as you press F4. Excel will visually show you how the reference is changing with each press.

* Absolute references are particularly useful when you want a formula to always reference a specific cell, regardless of where it's copied in the spreadsheet.